lundi 15 août 2022

The rise in power of military intervention units in democracies - English Version

 

The rise in power
of military intervention units in democracies:
The French case with its Gendarmerie Nationale


 - English Version -

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

(Sorry if there are errors in the meaning, word or verb of the expressions).

Updatet: 18/08/2022
 
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Official handover of the Command of the GIGN on 02/10/2020 to General Ghislain Réty
 On October 5, 2020, a reorganization of the GIGN was carried out, creating an intervention unit that is unique in Europe in terms of its numbers and missions.
 

New suits of GIGN

During this command, the Director General of the Gendarmerie announced the reorganization of the GIGN, which has made history by creating a unique intervention unit in Europe: the Central GIGN, added to the GIGN Detachments (DGIGN) in the provinces, previously called AGIGN. This new generation GIGN will be 1,000 men strong by spring 2021, and will thus become one of the largest intervention units in Europe in terms of manpower and missions.

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Progression of a GIGN unit

Because of its history and geography, France has reorganized its intervention forces over the decades following the various attacks it has had to endure on its territory.

For years, this one has taken on different faces:

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RAID unit during a bus intervention exercise

In recent years, it has reorganized the intervention units of the National Police into different units covering many small, medium and large cities.


 
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RAID
Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion
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BRI - BAC
Brigade de Recherche et d'Intervention 
Brigade Anti Commando
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GIPN
Groupe d'Intervention de la Police Nationale Française
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Gendarmerie zone map

It has also included and developed the intervention forces of the National Gendarmerie, which allow to add and support these Police units, during attacks, of big cities, because of the field covered by the Gendarmerie zone, that is to say 90% of the French territory and 50% of the French population.

 

Progression of a GIGN unit

As a result, the 1,000 elite gendarmes of the New Generation GIGN, which were deployed in the spring of 2021, complement the 1,000 gendarmes of the PSPG (Pelotons Spécialisés de Protection de la Gendarmerie in charge of nuclear site security), more than 3,000 gendarmes of the PSIG SABRE (Pelotons de Sécurité et d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie SABRE), more than 100 gendarmes of the PSMP (Pelotons de Sûreté Maritime et Portuaire) and more than 500 mobile gendarmes of the Mobile Gendarmerie for risky interventions.

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- FRENCH VERSION -

 

 Mobile gendarmes during an armed advance at the CNEFG of St Astier
(National Training Center of the Gendarmerie Forces)
 
In addition to their primary mission of maintaining and restoring order, the Mobile Gendarmerie Squadrons (EGM) can be used to neutralize terrorist threats or armed criminals in urban or rural environments.
 
Mobile gendarmes in progress during the anti-terrorist exercise in Lyon on 09/10/18
Since 2016, in the anti-terrorist framework, many squadrons have been equipped with a marching platoon of about 22 gendarmes for specialized and armed intervention in the face of a terrorist risk, such as the CRS with the "SPI4G-CRS."

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Mobile gendarmes during the tracking of a fugitive in the Cevennes in May 2021

A recent device, which has been perpetuated in 2021, is also part of their assignment in the armed intervention: the DIAG

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Members of the DGIGN of Nantes during the Tracking of an armed fugitive in La Chapelle sur Erdre in Loire Atlantique on 28/05/2021

These intervention units of the National Gendarmerie total more than 5,500 intervention gendarmes, with specific weapons and individual protection, ready to intervene according to the threats.


Presentation of the GIGN equipment in June 2018 during the EUROSATORY exhibition

It is interesting to note that France has kept this side of police intervention missions to soldiers because of its history, as the gendarmes come from the military institution, even if they were attached, from an organic and operational point of view, in July 2009, to the Ministry of Interior to have a single ministerial command.



In addition the equipment, weapons and outfits have been renewed, as here, those of the GIGN presented in 2018.


- FRENCH VERSION -

 

Movement of members of the GIGN on a heli-transported tactical pod

The means deployed, whether aerial,

 

Vessels of the PSMP of the National Gendarmerie

Maritim,

 

GIGN assault vehicle

or mobile require training and military rigor to allow a high technicality of employment.


Training of the 1st RPIMA with the RAID

It is to be noted that military means are added to this device in case of multiple attacks of high intensity in French cities with precise commandos of the Army, the National Navy and the Air Force.


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Gendarmes in progress during riots with gunfire in the Val d'Oise in July 2016

This pattern shows an integration of military means in the fight against increasingly violent delinquency, as seen in July 2016, after the death of Adama Traoré, where for five days, the forces of law and order were confronted with attacks with firearms that had caused more than 13 injuries among police and gendarmes...

- FRENCH VERSION -

 

GIGN demonstration of an intervention with an armored vehicle

as well as against the risk of terrorism.


Already present on French territory since 1978, the French military also supports security on the territory through VIGIPIRATE and operation "SENTINELLE", a third of which are reservists.

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Military exercise in "MONESTIER de CLERMONT" station in Isère in November 2018

Here again, successive governments have decided to use the military means at their disposal to ensure greater protection of the population.


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Montée de la présence militaire
dans les démocraties sur leur propre territoire
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French Army Reservists patrolling the Promenade des Anglais in Nice in 2017

To complete this military security scheme, we can also mention the 80,000 reservists of the French National Guard who support the National Gendarmerie and the "SENTINELLE" operation. In fact, depending on the terrorist threat, between 7,000 and 10,000 military personnel are deployed every day in France and its overseas territories.



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La Garde Nationale Française
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French soldier in Mali

This presence of military reservists allows career soldiers to be deployed on external military operations such as the "BARKHANE" mission in the Sahel or the "LYNX" mission in Lithuania, as well as missions under UN mandate.

This system allows us to have 7,600 soldiers in OPEX (overseas operations) and 11,000 soldiers pre-positioned or in sovereignty forces throughout the world.

 


Training of Gendarmerie reservists to arrest an individual

Out of a total of 80,000 reservists, they are distributed as follows: 46% for the different armies, 42% for the Gendarmerie, 7% for the Police and 5% for other services.

 

Members of the UEI of the Spanish Guardia Civil in training

And in other Western democratic countries?

It is worth noting that in the southern European countries, the military presence in police missions is also important. Let's take Spain with its Guardia Civil. It also has military units for intervention and arrest missions.



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UEI
Unidad Especial de Intervencion
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GAR 
Grupo de Accion Rapida
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Italian Carabinieri of the SOS Force

Italy, too, with its Carabinieri. It has also reorganized its military police units, specializing in terrorist risks:


Italian soldier deployed in an Italian city as part of Operation Strade Sicure

and coupling with its operation "Strade sicure" the security of its territory.


German Police and military woman during the GETEX from 07 to 09/03/2017

Germany has also recently incorporated the possibility of deploying its military according to the demands of its Länder.


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Dutch Marshalsea boarding a helicopter

In the Nordic countries, we can note the Netherlands which have two military components in this type of police missions: The BSB for "Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdracten" depending on the Dutch Gendarmerie,

 



Training of Dutch IMU members in a shopping mall

and the UIM for "Unit Interventie Mariniers" dependent on the Dutch Navy, formed to support the Dutch police.

 

Training of Danish Military Policemen

Denmark has also incorporated the possibility of having its military police intervene on its territory in case of major risks.

 

U.S. National Guard members to deploy to California in May 2020

In the Anglo-Saxon countries, we can note the configuration of the United States, which has a US National Guard that can intervene at the request of the governor of an American state. However, this National Guard is used more in the context of restoring order than in specific police interventions. 

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Members of l'ESU of NYPD of New York

Indeed, the USA has developed for many years, SWATS depending on cities or states.


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Members of the GIGN on an assault vehicle

In conclusion, faced with the risks of terrorism, the rise of increasingly violent mafia networks, armed criminals ready to fight, and delinquents who do not hesitate to use firearms, many democracies have decided to maintain a military status for some of their intervention forces in police missions, during tracking arrests or interventions to stop a threat.

 


- FRENCH VERSION -


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