lundi 14 novembre 2022

The Dutch Riot Control Forces - English Version


Mobiele Eenheid
The Dutch Riot Control Forces

 - English Version -

Translated with (free version)

(Sorry if there are errors in the meaning, word or verb of the expressions). 

Up date: 14/11/2022

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The « Mobiele Eenheid » (ME), which means "mobile unit", are units present for the maintenance of order during sports events in the Netherlands.

or social events,

as well as during riots.

The « Mobiele Eenheid » consist of police officers who usually have a job in the local police and are seconded
for law enforcement missions.

They have an additional training and train regularly
on different simulations...

In the Netherlands there are 25 regional police forces. All of them have MEs. The three largest MEs are located in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Haaglanden.
One of the doctrines of Dutch policing is de-escalation: to seek to minimize violence and have a permanent dialogue with the crowd. For this they use officers called "Peace Units" to be in contact with the demonstrators...
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For Amsterdam, the presence of a large "Mobiele Eenheid" is because of the large number of ceremonies, rallies and demonstrations.

For Rotterdam, this city has three soccer clubs.

Finally Haaglanden, close to the Hague, which is the Political Capital of the Netherlands and where many demonstrations are concentrated...

On this video, the intervention of the ME to push back demonstrators

It also includes specialized units such as the "Aahoudingseenheid" unit (UA) which is a unit that challenges the rioters and is composed of small units of 8 police officers in civilian clothes
who mix with the demonstrators.

the unit "Brand en Traangaseenheid" (BraTra), in charge of tear gas and the throwing of incendiary projectiles such as Molotov cocktails to put them out.

The Bereden (mounted police)

  - English Version -

Video with intervention with horses

and the "Hondengeleiders" (the canine unit) are also used
in the maintenance of order

It is also used the Eenheden te water, the unit of pump trucks.

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Here is a video of a meeting in 2005 between two soccer clubs

The creation of the Mobiele Eenheid dates back to the riots of 1934.

However units of the army still intervened
 in the 60's as you can see on the video above

It was in the 70's and 80's, with interventions for squat evacuations that the rapid development and professionalization of the policing profession took place.

Video showing barricades and ME interventions in 1980

These interventions showed the necessity of having qualified units
to face all kinds of unexpected events

"Capelle ana den Ijssel" - 04/01/1984
In the 80's, they will also intervene in different suburbs
to bring order.

"Capelle ana den Ijssel" - 04/01/1984
During evacuations of dwellings of a district of the town of "Capelle ana den Ijssel" in January 1984, violent clashes will take place.

"Capelle ana den Ijssel" - 04/01/1984
The forces of order, exceeded by the violence, will leave their weapons to make move back the demonstrators...
"Capelle ana den Ijssel" - 04/01/1984
This is an extremely rare situation. And it will remain so.

On this video, we see images from the time of this story.

The operations to evacuate the squats are difficult operations but mastered with the experience acquired over the years.
Police car burned during riots in ROTTERDAM on 19/11/2021
On November 19, 2021, riots took place in ROTTERDAM following a demonstration against sanitary measures. Several police cars were vandalized and fireworks were fired at the police. Warning shots were fired and some police officers fired in self-defense...
This video shows the night of November 19, 2021 when the tension was extreme in ROTTERDAM.
Members of the Mobiele Ennhied deployed in early November 2021
A week before, clashes had already broken out in several cities in the Netherlands, requiring the deployment of the Mobile Eenheid. to avoid a repeat of the violence done in early 2021.
Members of the Mobiele Ennhied deployed early mid-January 2021
Indeed, in January 2021, taking advantage of the announcement of health measures imposing a curfew at 21:00 to fight against the resurgence of COVID 19, many people took advantage of these demonstrations to create extreme violence during more than three nights of riots, also in several major cities of the Netherlands including ROTTERDAM, AMSTERDAM and the HAGUE
Arrest of a rioter by the Dutch police in January 2021
Violent clashes with the police, damage to street furniture, looting of stores and several hundred people were arrested. But beyond an anger against the restrictions, the profiles arrested by the Police showed other indications: it is mainly the facts of people from the Dutch extreme right-wing movement, hooligans known to the police, ultra-left thugs and looters from neighborhoods deemed sensitive, who by opportunism, took advantage of this moment far from a struggle for freedom of movement...

   - English Version -
- The action of masked gangs in demonstrations -
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The ME also supervise the sports events with all kinds of units beforehand and have adapted vehicles

Their vehicles are reinforced against projectiles and are used to block the way, like here a Mercedes sprinter

Here a Mercedes VARIO

These vehicles are also used to set up mobile barricades
to canalize demonstrators as we can see on this video
on this video above.

or to disperse them as with this pump truck

that we see in action in 2019 during a soccer match
As in many European countries, a helicopter flies over the protests to allow surveillance and targeted arrests.

The Netherlands uses the logic of de-escalation
as explained below:

  - English Version -
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The Netherlands participated in the GODIAC project in the analysis and research of new methods of policing and dialogues with protesters.

  - English Version -
However the increasingly violent acts of aggression pose a real reflection as you can discover on the link below:  

  - English Version -
  - English Version -

Here are some vehicles from ME through the years:

Here are videos of their interventions:

Same scene but from a different angle

  Video of their trainings

Discover  on "GSG9 1/87":
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