mercredi 2 novembre 2022

The limousines of the Soviet and Russian Presidents - English Version

The limousines of the Soviet and Russian Presidents

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Up date: 24/02/2023

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Here are some of the Soviet and Russian limousines:

From the ZIS, to the ZIL, passing by MERCEDES to arrive on the AURUS

Like all great countries, Russia, passing through the Soviet era, owned and produced limousines for its Tsar, Soviet and Russian Presidents.

Tsar Nicolas II getting into his Delaunay Belleville in 1908

Let's start with the Tsar of all the Russias, Nicolas II. This one had many cars.


Tsar Nicolas II with his wife arriving in his Delaunay Belleville in 1908

Here he is arriving in his favorite brand of car:
a Delaunay Belleville convertible in 1908.

 Imperial Garage in St Petersburg of Tsar Nicolas II in 1911

He owned several of this brand.

Two Delaunay Belleville in 1913 in St Petersburg

Here are two Delaunay Belleville of the Tsar arriving for the 300th anniversary of Russia (the first one being a Type HC4 Coupé de Ville and the second one with a hood) in 1913.

 Tsar Nicolas II enjoying a ride in one of his Rolls Royce 40/50 HP in 1913

He also owned two Rolls Royce 40/50 HP.

One of the Roll's Royce 40/50 HP of the Tsar Nicolas II ready to go in the royal train in 1913

During distant trips, the cars of the Tsar were embarked on the Royal Train.
 The family of Tsar Nicolas II riding in a Delaunay Belleville Coupé de Ville 
 A large lamp can be seen on the Delaunay Belleville. Indeed, during night travels, lighting was in its infancy at the time and required powerful lights on the cars to avoid obstacles..

Here put on the front of the roof.

 Arrival of Tsar Nicolas II in a Mercedes 45 PS in 1906

Here is another of his models: A Mercedes 45 PS Coupé de Ville

 The Renault CG 40 CV of Tsar Nicolas II in 1913

Here is another imperial car of the Tsar: A Renault CG 40 CV Coupé de ville Semi Décapotable

 Release of Tsar Nicolas II with his family in 1913

Here it is with the exit of the Russian Royal Family with a second Royal car, a Roll's Royce 40/50 HP Coupé de Ville. 

  One of the Packard Six 3/38 of Tsar Nicolas II in 1915

Packard Six 3/38 also equipped the fleet of the Tsarist Imperial Household with tracks.

 Three Packard Six 3/38 of Tsar Nicholas II in 1915

Indeed, the harsh Russian winters imposed this kind of means for the Tsar's travels.
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Rolls Royce Silver Ghost in Moscow in the 20s

Upon the fall of the Russian Imperial House, the new Kremlin leaders adopted the imperial cars. One of the Delaunay Bellevilles was damaged during an attempt on Lenin's life and a second one stolen... Later, Lenin chose a Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost.


Rolls Royce Silver Ghost in Moscow in the 20s

The Soviet government later ordered a dozen of this brand...


Lenin and Stalin enjoying a ride in a Rolls Royce Silver Ghost in Moscow in the 1920s

Here is Joseph STALIN and Vladimir Lenin getting into one of them.

Packard 12

Stalin's car was an American Packard 12, which was a gift from the American President Franklin Roosvelt in 1935.

 Les limousines et voitures d'escorte

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The Soviet President Stalin getting off a Packard 12

This car was present during the summits with the allies in Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam...

 ZIS 110 near the Kremlin

In 1933, the Soviet company "AMO" is renamed "ZIS" for "Zavod Ijmeni Stalin" which means "Factory named by Stalin".


ZIS 110 on Red Square in Moscow

Stalin asked this Soviet manufacturer to propose a Soviet limousine to be used by the apparatchiks of the power. It is during the Second World War, that the ZIS 110 was created.


ZIS 110

The interior of this car had nothing to envy to the other Western limousines... It is moreover interesting to see that this Soviet limousine takes features of the American LINCOLN, CADILLAC or IMPERIAL of the Fifties.

Review of the troops by high officers of the Soviet army on board ZIS 110B

during a celebration of the 7th of May of the Soviet Victory against Nazi Germany

It is besides in 1953 that Cabriolet appeared at the time of the Parade of the victory against the Nazis on the Red square of Moscow as one can see it on this photograph with these two ZIS 110B.


ZIS 110 B in front of the Lenin Mausoleum
Particularity of these convertibles: they had 4 doors.

ZIS 110B with Soviet General saluting Soviet Navy troops.

They were based on the principle of the American presidential convertibles, during the parades, so that the public and the military could see the Soviet officers, officials and guests.

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Soviet President Stalin in front of a ZIS 115

Among the models based on ZIS 110, about fifty were made with armor and took the name ZIS 115.


ZIL 111 in front of the Kremlin

At the end of the 50's, the ZIL 111 appeared, always taking the shape of American cars...


Visit of Fidel CASTRO with the Soviet president Nikita KHROUCHTCHEV
in a ZIL 111B in the 60s in Moscow

Here too, a convertible model was offered during official visits. The name ZIS was changed to ZIL meaning Zavod Imeni Likhatchiova in 1956, Likhatchiov being the name of the former director of the factory.


  ZIL 111 in front of a street in Moscow

This followed the period of de-Stalinization undertaken by Nikita KHROUCHTCHEV, to remove the "S" from ZIS because it was the abbreviation of Stalin in the name of the brand...


Triumphal procession on April 14, 1961 of the cosmonaut Youri GAGARINE in Moscow
These limousines were manufactured for many Soviet officials.

Review of the troops by a General of the Soviet army on board ZIL 111B

at the time of a celebration of May 07 of the Soviet Victory against Nazi Germany

One can see there also his presence on May 07, day of celebration of the victory against the Nazis, with the highest Russian officers making the review of the troops on board ZIL 111B.


 ZIL 111 of 1963

The model was revised in 1963 with modifications on the grille among others, but still with the name ZIL 111.

ZIL 111 of 1963

The forms making think of the American style of these years there...

ZIL 114 on the Red Square

In the 60s and 70s, the ZIL 114 was created and had several modifications over the years. The first version resembled the 1965 Lincoln Continental, then the 1977 version resembled the Cadillac Fleetwood 75.

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Review of the troops by high ranking officers of the Soviet Army on board ZIL 117
during a May 07 celebration of the Soviet Victory over Nazi Germany

Still for the celebrations on the Red Square of the celebration of the Victory over Nazi Germany, the convertibles were present, here ZIL 117.

ZIL 41045 behind the Red Square in Moscow

From the 80's the ZIL 41045 to 41052 appeared, which were almost identical in shape. Only the grille changed...

Here are three of these models in a yard of the Kremlin in Moscow


Here is a ZIL 41045 from 1978


With penetration lights,

and here a ZIL 41051 from 1986

ZIL 41052 of escort

Some were built as escort vehicles.


ZIL 41052 with bodyguards on steps

  The bodyguards being able to stand outside thanks to steps.


Arrival of a ZIL 41052 of the Soviet President in 1987 escorted by Soviet motorcyclists

  Indeed, this principle of intervention of bodyguards or motorcyclists close to the Presidential car follows the Assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in 1934 and which imposed a pro-active security around it.


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ZIL 41052 escort

The annual production did not exceed ten models manufactured...

The two ZIL 41044 during a Victory Day parade on the Red Square in Moscow

And of course, the ZIL cabriolet for the annual ceremony of May 07, on the victory against Nazi Germany, and also used during reviews of the troops outside this date. There were three of them, in case one of the two used by the Russian Minister of Defense and the General of the Russian Armed Forces broke down.


Russian Mercedes Limousine in the late 90s
After the fall of the USSR, the Russian presidents changed by driving around in Mercedes Limousines.
Here are three of the different models of the Russian Presidency
in the Kremlin courtyard in Moscow

A Mercedes S500 V140 of 1994 from the carbuilder TRASCO BREMEN
A Mercedes S600 Pullman of 2004
A Mercedes S600 Pullman of 2011

President MEDVEDEV getting out of a Mercedes Limousine in the late 2000's

Here is the Russian President MEDVEDEV at the end of the 2000s on the Red Square.

Russian Mercedes Limousine in Versailles in 2017 during the official visit of the Russian President
Here during a visit to France in 2017 of the Russian President, Vladimir PUTIN, this one had moved in Mercedes S Class Limousine.

ZIL 4112R

In 2006 the ZIL 4112R was created for the Russian President Vladimir PUTIN. But this one found it not very innovative, resembling too much the old ZIL of the years 80-90...


Russian Mercedes Limousine in a yard of the Kremlin in Moscow
President Vladimir PUTIN continued to drive in German limousines...


Limousine AURUS Senate

A few years later, he decided to design a high-class Russian limousine. And in 2018 appeared the AURUS Senate.

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The Russian President's limousine
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AURUS Senate limousine of the Russian President and AURUS escort in the Kremlin in Moscowu

This is to give back to Russia a prestigious car brand


Review of the troops by the Russian Minister of Defense and the General of the Russian Armies 

during the Victory Day on 07/05/2019

Of course, the convertible model was created and presented in 2019...


AURUS Senate Sedan in front of the AURUS Senate Limousine during a state visit to Finland in 2018

But the goal is to create a real luxury brand offering a whole range of vehicles: sedan, convertible, monospace and 4X4...


some of which are used as escort cars

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GAZ SP 46 Tiger during a military parade
also noteworthy are military models transformed for parades

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